Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracStandalone

Jul 30, 2021, 7:40:25 AM (17 months ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v1  
     1= Tracd
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     6== Pros
     8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
     12== Cons
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
     15 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead,
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     18== Usage examples
     20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
     22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     41There is support for the HTTPS protocol (//Since 1.3.4//). Specify the path to the PEM certificate file and keyfile using the `--certfile` and `--keyfile` options. You can specify just the `--certfile` option if you have a [ combined key and certificate].
     43To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     45== Installing as a Windows Service
     47=== Option 1
     48To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run:
     50 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     51 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd.exe\" <your tracd parameters>"
     52 net start tracd
     55{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     56**Attention:** Do not use `tracd.exe` directly.  Instead register `python.exe` directly with `tracd.exe` as a parameter.  If you use `tracd.exe`, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a `net stop tracd`.
     59If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     61 sc config tracd start= auto
     64The spacing here is important.
     67Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     70Three (string) parameters are provided:
     71||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python27\ ||
     72||Application ||python.exe ||
     73||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd.exe -p 8080 ... ||
     75Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     76(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     79For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run:
     81"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd.exe <your tracd parameters>"
     82net start tracd
     85=== Option 2
     87Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     89=== Option 3
     91also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     93$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     94$ net start tracd
     97== Using Authentication
     99Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
     101{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     102**Attention:** Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
     105Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     107The general format for using authentication is:
     109 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     112 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     113   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     114   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     115 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     116 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     117 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     118 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     120 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     125 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     126   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1
     129Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     131 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     132   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     133   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \
     134   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     137Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     139 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     140   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \
     141   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     144=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
     145This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     147  Note: On Windows It is necessary to install the [ passlib]
     148  package in order to decode some htpasswd formats. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0)
     149  work without this module.
     151To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     153 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     155then for additional users:
     157 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     160Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     162 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
     165For example:
     167 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
     169''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     171=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
     173If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     175Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     177=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     179Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     181Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
     183$ ./contrib/ -cb htpasswd user1 user1
     184$ ./contrib/ -b htpasswd user2 user2
     188$ ./contrib/ -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
     189$ ./contrib/ -b htdigest trac user2 user2
     192==== Using `md5sum`
     193It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     199echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     202== Reference
     204Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd -h` or `tracd --help`):
     206usage: tracd [-h] [--version] [-e PARENTDIR | -s]
     207             [-a DIGESTAUTH | --basic-auth BASICAUTH] [-p PORT] [-b HOSTNAME]
     208             [--protocol {http,https,scgi,ajp,fcgi}] [--certfile CERTFILE]
     209             [--keyfile KEYFILE] [-q] [--base-path BASE_PATH]
     210             [--http10 | --http11] [-r | -d] [--pidfile PIDFILE] [--umask MASK]
     211             [--group GROUP] [--user USER]
     212             [envs ...]
     214positional arguments:
     215  envs                  path of the project environment(s)
     217optional arguments:
     218  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     219  --version             show program's version number and exit
     220  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir PARENTDIR
     221                        parent directory of the project environments
     222  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     223  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth DIGESTAUTH
     224                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     225  --basic-auth BASICAUTH
     226                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     227  -p PORT, --port PORT  the port number to bind to
     228  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname HOSTNAME
     229                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     230  --protocol {http,https,scgi,ajp,fcgi}
     231                        the server protocol (default: http)
     232  --certfile CERTFILE   PEM certificate file for HTTPS
     233  --keyfile KEYFILE     PEM key file for HTTPS
     234  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using the ajp
     235                        protocol)
     236  --base-path BASE_PATH
     237                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     238  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol instead of HTTP/1.1
     239  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol (default)
     240  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     241  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     242  --pidfile PIDFILE     file to write pid when daemonizing
     243  --umask MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     244                        octal notation (default: 022)
     245  --group GROUP         the group to run as
     246  --user USER           the user to run as
     249Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     251== Tips
     253=== Serving static content
     255If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     256it can also be used to distribute static content
     257(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     259This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     260and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     262Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     263the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     264which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     266=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     268In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     270In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     272If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     274See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     276=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     277It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     279Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     281First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     284<Location /project/proxified>
     285        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,
     286        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     287        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     288        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     289        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     293Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     295from trac.core import *
     296from trac.config import BoolOption
     297from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     299class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     301    implements(IAuthenticator)
     303    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     304               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     305                (''since ??.??').""")
     307    def authenticate(self, req):
     308        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     309            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     310        return None
     314Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     318obey_remote_user_header = true
     322Run tracd:
     324tracd -p 8101 -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     327Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     329Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     332remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     334plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     336obey_remote_user_header = true
     339Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     342file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     345=== Serving a different base path than /
     346Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     348 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     352See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]