Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracInstall


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Jul 30, 2021, 7:40:25 AM (17 months ago)
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trac
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  • TracInstall

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.5
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3
     4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [https://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [https://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://jinja.pocoo.org Jinja2] templating system, though Genshi templates are supported until Trac 1.5.1.
     5
     6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     7
     8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     9
     10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     11
     12[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     13
     14== Dependencies
     15=== Mandatory Dependencies
     16To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     17
     18 * [https://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 3.5
     19 * [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools], version > 5.6
     20 * [https://pypi.org/project/Jinja2 Jinja2], version >= 2.9.3
     21
     22You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     23
     24==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     25
     26You already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     27
     28Optionally, you may install a newer version of [https://pypi.org/project/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     29
     30==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     31
     32You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     33 * [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 9.1 or later
     34 * [https://pypi.org/project/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.5 or later
     35
     36See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     37
     38==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     39
     40Trac works well with MySQL, provided you use the following:
     41
     42 * [https://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     43 * [https://pypi.org/project/PyMySQL PyMySQL]
     44
     45Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     46
     47=== Optional Dependencies
     48
     49==== Subversion
     50
     51[https://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.14.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     52
     53There are [https://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. See [trac:TracSubversion#GettingSubversion getting Subversion] for more information.
     54
     55{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     56**Note:**
     57* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     58* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     59}}}
     60
     61For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     62
     63==== Git
     64
     65[https://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     66
     67==== Other Version Control Systems
     68
     69Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     70
     71==== Web Server
     72A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     73
     74Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     75 * [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     76   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     77     [https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     78   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     79 * a [https://fastcgi-archives.github.io FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     80 * an [https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     81   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     82 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     83 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     84   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     85
     86
     87==== Other Python Packages
     88
     89 * [http://babel.pocoo.org Babel], version >= 2.2,
     90   needed for localization support
     91 * [http://pytz.sourceforge.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     92   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     93   an internal time zone implementation. Installing Babel
     94   will install pytz.
     95 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net docutils],
     96   version >= 0.14, for WikiRestructuredText.
     97 * [http://pygments.org Pygments], version >= 1.0,
     98   for [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     99 * [https://pypi.org/project/textile Textile],
     100   version >= 2.3,
     101   for rendering the [https://github.com/textile/python-textile Textile markup language].
     102 * [https://pypi.org/project/passlib passlib] on Windows to decode [TracStandalone#BasicAuthorization:Usingahtpasswdpasswordfile htpasswd formats] other than `SHA-1`.
     103 * [https://pypi.org/project/pyreadline pyreadline] on Windows for trac-admin [TracAdmin#InteractiveMode command completion].
     104
     105{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     106**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     107}}}
     108
     109Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     110
     111== Installing Trac
     112
     113The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     114
     115It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     116
     117=== Using `pip`
     118`pip` is the modern Python package manager and is included in Python distributions. `pip` will automatically
     119resolve the //required// dependencies (Jinja2 and
     120setuptools) and download the latest packages from pypi.org.
     121
     122You can also install directly from a source package. You can obtain the source in a tar or zip from the [trac:TracDownload] page. After extracting the archive, change to the directory containing `setup.py` and run:
     123
     124{{{#!sh
     125$ pip install .
     126}}}
     127
     128`pip` supports numerous other install mechanisms. It can be passed the URL of an archive or other download location. Here are some examples:
     129
     130* Install the latest stable version from a zip archive:
     131{{{#!sh
     132$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest.zip
     133}}}
     134* Install the latest development version from a tar archive:
     135{{{#!sh
     136$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     137}}}
     138* Install the unreleased 1.4-stable from subversion:
     139{{{#!sh
     140$ pip install svn+https://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/branches/1.2-stable
     141}}}
     142* Install the latest development preview (//not recommended for production installs//):
     143{{{#!sh
     144$ pip install --find-links=https://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/TracDownload Trac
     145}}}
     146
     147The optional dependencies can be installed from PyPI using `pip`:
     148{{{#!sh
     149$ pip install babel docutils pygments textile
     150}}}
     151
     152The optional dependencies can alternatively be
     153specified using the `extras` keys in the setup file:
     154{{{#!sh
     155$ pip install Trac[babel,rest,pygments,textile]
     156}}}
     157
     158`rest` is the extra that installs the `docutils`
     159dependency.
     160
     161Include `mysql` or `psycopg2-binary` in the
     162list if using the MySQL or PostgreSQL database.
     163
     164Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins from PyPI (listed [https://pypi.org/search/?c=Framework+%3A%3A+Trac here]) using pip. See TracPlugins for more information.
     165
     166=== Using installer
     167
     168On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     169
     170=== Using package manager
     171
     172Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. However, your package manager may not provide the latest release of Trac.
     173
     174== Creating a Project Environment
     175
     176A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     177
     178A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     179{{{#!sh
     180$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     181}}}
     182
     183[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     184
     185Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     186
     187Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     188
     189Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     190{{{#!sh
     191$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     192}}}
     193
     194The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     195
     196{{{#!div class=important
     197'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     198}}}
     199
     200== Deploying Trac
     201
     202=== Running the Standalone Server
     203
     204After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     205{{{#!sh
     206$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     207}}}
     208
     209Then, open a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     210{{{#!sh
     211$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     212}}}
     213
     214=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     215
     216Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     217 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     218 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     219 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     220 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     221
     222Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     223
     224==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     225
     226Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
     227[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
     228
     229Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     230
     231For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     232{{{#!sh
     233$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     234$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     235$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     236$ ls /var/www
     237cgi-bin htdocs
     238$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     239}}}
     240
     241==== Mapping Static Resources
     242
     243Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     244
     245Web servers such as [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     246
     247There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     248
     249A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     250
     251The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     252 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     253 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     254 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     255 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     256
     257The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     258{{{#!apache
     259Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     260Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     261Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     262Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     263}}}
     264
     265===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     266
     267Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     268{{{#!sh
     269$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     270}}}
     271
     272Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     273{{{#!apache
     274Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
     275
     276<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     277  # For Apache 2.2
     278  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     279    Order allow,deny
     280    Allow from all
     281  </IfModule>
     282  # For Apache 2.4
     283  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     284    Require all granted
     285  </IfModule>
     286</Directory>
     287}}}
     288
     289If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     290{{{#!apache
     291<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     292  SetHandler None
     293</Location>
     294}}}
     295
     296Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     297{{{#!apache
     298Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     299
     300<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     301  # For Apache 2.2
     302  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     303    Order allow,deny
     304    Allow from all
     305  </IfModule>
     306  # For Apache 2.4
     307  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     308    Require all granted
     309  </IfModule>
     310</Directory>
     311}}}
     312
     313Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-htdocs_location-option trac.htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     314{{{#!ini
     315[trac]
     316htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     317}}}
     318
     319Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     320
     321Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     322{{{#!sh
     323$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     324}}}
     325
     326==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     327
     328Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     329
     330== Configuring Authentication
     331
     332Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     333
     334The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     335
     336Please refer to one of the following sections:
     337 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     338 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     339 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     340
     341[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     342
     343== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     344Grant admin rights to user admin:
     345{{{#!sh
     346$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     347}}}
     348
     349This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     350
     351== Configuring Trac
     352
     353Configuration options are documented on the TracIni page.
     354
     355TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     356
     357In addition to the optional version control backends, Trac provides several optional features that are disabled by default:
     358* [TracFineGrainedPermissions#AuthzPolicy Fine-grained permission policy]
     359* [TracPermissions#CreatingNewPrivileges Custom permissions]
     360* [TracTickets#deleter Ticket deletion]
     361* [TracTickets#cloner Ticket cloning]
     362* [TracRepositoryAdmin#CommitTicketUpdater Ticket changeset references]
     363
     364== Using Trac
     365
     366Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     367
     368Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     369
     370'' Enjoy! ''
     371
     372[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     373
     374----
     375See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade