Calendar

Aug
28
Fri
Colloquium Thesis Proposal: Laura Mayorga
Aug 28 @ 3:15 pm – 4:15 pm
Colloquium Thesis Proposal: Laura Mayorga @ BX102

Probing Exoplanet Atmospheric Properties from Phase Variations and Polarization

Laura Mayorga, NMSU

The study of exoplanets is evolving past simple transit and Doppler method discovery and characterization. One of the many goals of the upcoming mission WFIRST-AFTA is to directly image giant exoplanets with a coronagraph. We undertake a study to determine the types of exoplanets that missions such as WFIRST will encounter and what instruments these missions require to best characterize giant planet atmospheres. We will first complete a benchmark study of how Jupiter reflects and scatters light as a function of phase angle. We will use Cassini flyby data from late 2000 to measure Jupiter’s phase curve, spherical albedo, and degree of polarization. Using Jupiter as a comparison, we will then study a sample of exoplanet atmosphere models generated to explore the atmospheric parameter space of giant planets and estimate what WFIRST might observe. Our study will provide valuable refinements to Jupiter-like models of planet evolution and atmospheric composition. We will also help inform future missions of what instruments are needed to characterize similar planets and what science goals will further our knowledge of giant worlds in our universe.

Oct
9
Fri
Colloquium: Ben Weiner
Oct 9 @ 3:15 pm – 4:15 pm
Colloquium:  Ben Weiner @ BX102

Searching for Dwarf Satellites around Milky Way – Analog Galaxies with the SAGA survey

Ben Weiner, Steward Observatory

Dwarf satellites of massive galaxies are a probe of many issues in galaxy evolution and cosmology, including the nature of low-mass galaxies, star formation at early times, accretion into halos, and the abundance of low-mass dark matter halos. Much attention has been devoted to the number and nature of Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites, especially the “missing satellites problem.” However, we know very little about dwarf satellites outside the Local Group below the mass of the LMC, and we don’t know if the MW and M31 satellite systems are typical. The SAGA (Satellites Around Galactic Analogs) survey collaboration aims to address this with both observational and theoretical studies of satellite abundances and properties around Milky Way analog central galaxies. I will present results from our MMT/Hectospec wide field spectroscopic surveys for satellites. We have surveyed the fields of several nearby galaxies that are similar to the Milky Way to detect and spectroscopically confirm dwarf satellites.  We find a range of numbers of satellites, suggesting that there is a significant variance in halo histories.  We also find that not all dwarf systems resemble the Milky Way and M31 systems. I will discuss these results and some of the implications on the life cycle of satellites that we can infer from satellite abundances and properties, including their images and spectra.

 

Jan
27
Fri
Colloquium: Bryan Butler (Host: Nancy Chanover)
Jan 27 @ 3:15 pm – 4:15 pm
Colloquium: Bryan Butler (Host: Nancy Chanover) @ BX 102

Observations of Solar System Bodies with the VLA and ALMA

Dr. Bryan Butler, NRAO

Observations of solar system bodies at wavelengths from submm to meter wavelengths provide important and unique information about those bodies. Such observations probe to depths unreachable at other wavelengths – typically of order 10-20 wavelengths for bodies with solid surfaces, and as deep as tens of bars for those with thick atmospheres (the giant planets). In the past five years, two instruments have been commissioned which have revolutionized the ability to make very sensitive, high-resolution observations at these wavelengths: the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). I will present a discussion of results over the past five years from observations from both the VLA and ALMA. These include observations of the atmospheres of all of the giant planets, the rings of Saturn, and the surfaces of many icy bodies in the outer solar system. I will also present plans for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA), the next step for millimeter to centimeter wavelength interferometry.

Mar
28
Tue
Joint Physics/Astronomy Colloquium: William Newman
Mar 28 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm
Joint Physics/Astronomy Colloquium: William Newman @ Gardiner Hall 229, Physics. Dept. | Ames | Iowa | United States

Giant Planet Shielding of the Inner Solar System Revisited: Blending Celestial Mechanics with Advanced Computation

Dr. William Newman, UCLA

The Earth has sustained during the last billion years as many as five catastrophic collisions with asteroids and comets which led to widespread species extinctions. Our own atmosphere was literally blown away 4.5 billion years ago by a collision with a Mars-sized impactor. However, collisions with comets originating in the outer solar system accreted much of the present-day atmosphere. Relatively advanced life on our planet is the beneficiary of a number of impact events during Earth’s history which built our atmosphere without destroying a large fraction of terrestrial life. Using very high precision Monte Carlo integration methods to explore the orbital evolution over hundreds of millions of years followed by the application of celestial mechanical techniques, the presentation will explain directly how Earth was shielded by the combined influence of Jupiter and Saturn, assuring that only 1 in 100,000 potential collisions with the Earth will materialize.