Calendar

Mar
28
Wed
ASTR 630 – Astronomy Statistical Analysis
Mar 28 @ 9:30 am – 10:20 am
ASTR 621 – Planetary Science II
Mar 28 @ 11:00 am – 12:15 pm
ASTR 625 – Cosmology
Mar 28 @ 1:30 pm – 2:45 pm
Colloquium PhD Thesis Defense: Ethan Dederick
Mar 28 @ 3:15 pm – 4:15 pm
Colloquium PhD Thesis Defense: Ethan Dederick @ Science Hall 109

Seismic Inferences of Gas Giant Planets: Excitation & Interiors

Ethan Dederick, NMSU

Seismology has been the premier tool of study for understanding the interior structure of the Earth, the Sun, and even other stars. In this thesis we develop the framework for the first ever seismic inversion of a rapidly rotating gas giant planet. We extensively test this framework to ensure that the inversions are robust and operate within a linear regime. This framework is then applied to Saturn to solve for its interior density and sound speed profiles to better constrain its interior structure. This is done by incorporating observations of its mode frequencies derived from Linblad and Vertical Resonances in Saturn’s C-ring. We find that although the accuracy of the inversions is mitigated by the limited number of observed modes, we find that Saturn’s core density must be at least 8.97 +/- 0.01 g cm^{-3} below r/R_S = 0.3352 and its sound speed must be greater than 54.09 +/- 0.01 km s^{-1} below r/R_S = 0.2237. These new constraints can aid the development of accurate equations of state and thus help determine the composition in Saturn’s core. In addition, we investigate mode excitation and whether the \kappa-Mechanism can excite modes on Jupiter. While we find that the \kappa-Mechanism does not play a role in Jovian mode excitation, we discover a different opacity driven mechanism, The Radiative Suppression Mechanism, that can excite modes in hot giant planets orbiting extremely close to their host stars if they receive a stellar flux greater than 10^9~erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}. Finally, we investigate whether moist convection is responsible for exciting Jovian modes. Mode driving can occur if, on average, one cloud column with a 1-km radius exists per 6423 km^2 or if ~43 storms with 200 columns, each with a radius of 25 km, erupt per day. While this seems unlikely given current observations, moist convection does have enough thermal energy to drive Jovian oscillations, should it be available to them.

Mar
29
Thu
ASTR 605 – Interstellar Medium
Mar 29 @ 8:55 am – 10:10 am
Inclusive Astronomy
Mar 29 @ 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm
Astro-ph Discussion
Mar 29 @ 2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
Colloquium (Joint with Physics): Jim Fuller (Host: Ethan Dederick)
Mar 29 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm
Colloquium (Joint with Physics): Jim Fuller (Host: Ethan Dederick) @ Gardiner Hall 230

Surprising Impacts of Gravity Waves

Jim Fuller, Caltech

Gravity waves are low frequency fluid oscillations restored by buoyancy forces in planetary and stellar interiors. Despite their ubiquity, the importance of gravity waves in evolutionary processes and asteroseismology has only recently been appreciated. For instance, Kepler asteroseismic data has revealed gravity modes in thousands of red giant stars, providing unprecedented measurements of core structure and rotation. I will show how gravity modes (or lack thereof) can also reveal strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giants, and I will demonstrate that strong fields appear to be common within “retired” A stars but are absent in their lower-mass counterparts. In the late phase evolution of massive stars approaching core-collapse, vigorous convection excites gravity waves that can redistribute huge amounts of energy within the star. I will present preliminary models of this process, showing how wave energy redistribution can drive outbursts and enhanced mass loss in the final years of massive star evolution, with important consequences for the appearance of subsequent supernovae.
Mar
30
Fri
ASTR 630 – Astronomy Statistical Analysis
Mar 30 @ 9:30 am – 10:20 am
Galaxy Group Meeting
Mar 30 @ 12:30 pm – 1:00 pm